Economy Rebecca Gordon

We Don’t Need a 24/7 Economy

Consider what it means for an American president to call for dock workers to go on a 24/7 schedule to ensure that Christmas presents arrive at homes on time. A Gilded Age? Not for those workers heading for the night shift, that’s for sure.
[Ravi Shah / CC BY 2.0]

By Rebecca Gordon | TomDispatch

In mid-October, President Biden announced that the Port of Los Angeles would begin operating 24 hours a day, seven days a week, joining the nearby Port of Long Beach, which had been doing so since September. The move followed weeks of White House negotiations with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, as well as shippers like UPS and FedEx, and major retailers like Walmart and Target.

The purpose of expanding port hours, according to the New York Times, was “to relieve growing backlogs in the global supply chains that deliver critical goods to the United States.” Reading this, you might be forgiven for imagining that an array of crucial items like medicines or their ingredients or face masks and other personal protective equipment had been languishing in shipping containers anchored off the West Coast. You might also be forgiven for imagining that workers, too lazy for the moment at hand, had chosen a good night’s sleep over the vital business of unloading such goods from boats lined up in their dozens offshore onto trucks, and getting them into the hands of the Americans desperately in need of them. Reading further, however, you’d learn that those “critical goods” are actually things like “exercise bikes, laptops, toys, [and] patio furniture.”

Fair enough. After all, as my city, San Francisco, enters what’s likely to be yet another almost rainless winter on a planet in ever more trouble, I can imagine my desire for patio furniture rising to a critical level. So, I’m relieved to know that dock workers will now be laboring through the night at the command of the president of the United States to guarantee that my needs are met. To be sure, shortages of at least somewhat more important items are indeed rising, including disposable diapers and the aluminum necessary for packaging some pharmaceuticals. Still, a major focus in the media has been on the specter of “slim pickings this Christmas and Hanukkah.”

Providing “critical” yard furnishings is not the only reason the administration needs to unkink the supply chain. It’s also considered an anti-inflation measure (if an ineffective one). At the end of October, the Consumer Price Index had jumped 6.2% over the same period in 2020, the highest inflation rate in three decades. Such a rise is often described as the result of too much money chasing too few goods. One explanation for the current rise in prices is that, during the worst months of the pandemic, many Americans actually saved money, which they’re now eager to spend. When the things people want to buy are in short supply — perhaps even stuck on container ships off Long Beach and Los Angeles — the price of those that are available naturally rises.

Republicans have christened the current jump in the consumer price index as “Bidenflation,” although the administration actually bears little responsibility for the situation. But Joe Biden and the rest of the Democrats know one thing: if it looks like they’re doing nothing to bring prices down, there will be hell to pay at the polls in 2022 and so it’s the night shift for dock workers and others in Los Angeles, Long Beach, and possibly other American ports. 

However, running West Coast ports 24/7 won’t solve the supply-chain problem, not when there aren’t enough truckers to carry that critical patio furniture to Home Depot. The shortage of such drivers arises because there’s more demand than ever before, and because many truckers have simply quit the industry. As the New York Times reports, “Long hours and uncomfortable working conditions are leading to a shortage of truck drivers, which has compounded shipping delays in the United States.”

Rethinking (Shift) Work

Truckers aren’t the only workers who have been rethinking their occupations since the coronavirus pandemic pressed the global pause button. The number of employees quitting their jobs hit 4.4 million this September, about 3% of the U.S. workforce. Resignations were highest in industries like hospitality and medicine, where employees are most at risk of Covid-19 exposure.

For the first time in many decades, workers are in the driver’s seat. They can command higher wages and demand better working conditions. And that’s exactly what they’re doing at workplaces ranging from agricultural equipment manufacturer John Deere to breakfast-cereal makers Kellogg and Nabisco. I’ve even been witnessing it in my personal labor niche, part-time university faculty members (of which I’m one). So allow me to pause here for a shout-out to the 6,500 part-time professors in the University of California system: Thank you! Your threat of a two-day strike won a new contract with a 30% pay raise over the next five years!

This brings me to Biden’s October announcement about those ports going 24/7. In addition to demanding higher pay, better conditions, and an end to two-tier compensation systems (in which laborers hired later don’t get the pay and benefits available to those already on the job), workers are now in a position to reexamine and, in many cases, reject the shift-work system itself. And they have good reason to do so.

So, what is shift work? It’s a system that allows a business to run continuously, ceaselessly turning out and/or transporting widgets year after year. Workers typically labor in eight-hour shifts: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., 4:00 p.m. to midnight, and midnight to 8:00 a.m., or the like. In times of labor shortages, they can even be forced to work double shifts, 16 hours in total. Businesses love shift work because it reduces time (and money) lost to powering machinery up and down. And if time is money, then more time worked means more profit for corporations. In many industries, shift work is good for business. But for workers, it’s often another story.

The Graveyard Shift

Each shift in a 24-hour schedule has its own name. The day shift is the obvious one. The swing shift takes you from the day shift to the all-night, or graveyard, shift. According to folk etymology, that shift got its name because, once upon a time, cemetery workers were supposed to stay up all night listening for bells rung by unfortunates who awakened to discover they’d been buried alive. While it’s true that some coffins in England were once fitted with such bells, the term was more likely a reference to the eerie quiet of the world outside the workplace during the hours when most people are asleep. 

I can personally attest to the strangeness of life on the graveyard shift. I once worked in an ice cream cone factory. Day and night, noisy, smoky machines resembling small Ferris wheels carried metal molds around and around, while jets of flame cooked the cones inside them. After a rotation, each mold would tip, releasing four cones onto a conveyor belt, rows of which would then approach my station relentlessly. I’d scoop up a stack of 25, twirl them around in a quick check for holes, and place them in a tall box.

Almost simultaneously, I’d make cardboard dividers, scoop up three more of those stacks and seal them, well-divided, in that box, which I then inserted in an even larger cardboard carton and rushed to a giant mechanical stapler. There, I pressed it against a switch, and — boom-ba-da-boom — six large staples would seal it shut, leaving me just enough time to put that carton atop a pallet of them before racing back to my machine, as new columns of just-baked cones piled up, threatening to overwhelm my worktable.

The only time you stopped scooping and boxing was when a relief worker arrived, so you could have a brief break or gobble down your lunch. You rarely talked to your fellow-workers, because there was only one “relief” packer, so only one person at a time could be on break. Health regulations made it illegal to drink water on the line and management was too cheap to buy screens for the windows, which remained shut, even when it was more than 100 degrees outside.

They didn’t like me very much at the Maryland Pacific Cone Company, maybe because I wanted to know why the high school boys who swept the floors made more than the women who, since the end of World War II, had been climbing three rickety flights of stairs to stand by those machines. In any case, management there started messing with my shifts, assigning me to all three in the same week. As you might imagine, I wasn’t sleeping a whole lot and would occasionally resort to those “little white pills” immortalized in the truckers’ song “Six Days on the Road.”

But I’ll never forget one graveyard shift when an angel named Rosie saved my job and my sanity. It was probably three in the morning. I’d been standing under fluorescent lights, scooping, twirling, and boxing for hours when the universe suddenly stood still. I realized at that moment that I’d never done anything else since the beginning of time but put ice cream cones in boxes and would never stop doing so until the end of time.

If time lost its meaning then, dimensions still turned out to matter a lot, because the cones I was working on that night were bigger than I was used to. Soon I was falling behind, while a huge mound of 40-ounce Eat-It-Alls covered my table and began to spill onto the floor. I stared at them, frozen, until I suddenly became aware that someone was standing at my elbow, gently pushing me out of the way.

Rosie, who had been in that plant since the end of World War II, said quietly, “Let me do this. You take my line.” In less than a minute, she had it all under control, while I spent the rest of the night at her machine, with cones of a size I could handle.

I have never been so glad to see the dawn.

The Deadly Reality of the Graveyard Shift

So, when the president of the United States negotiated to get dock workers in Los Angeles to work all night, I felt a twinge of horror. There’s another all-too-literal reason to call it the “graveyard” shift. It turns out that working when you should be in bed is dangerous. Not only do more accidents occur when the human body expects to be asleep, but the long-term effects of night work can be devastating. As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports, the many adverse effects of night work include:

“type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, metabolic disorders, and sleep disorders. Night shift workers might also have an increased risk for reproductive issues, such as irregular menstrual cycles, miscarriage, and preterm birth. Digestive problems and some psychological issues, such as stress and depression, are more common among night shift workers. The fatigue associated with nightshift can lead to injuries, vehicle crashes, and industrial disasters.”

Some studies have shown that such shift work can also lead to decreased bone-mineral density and so to osteoporosis. There is, in fact, a catchall term for all these problems: shift-work disorder.

In addition, studies directly link the graveyard shift to an increased incidence of several kinds of cancer, including breast and prostate cancer. Why would disrupted sleep rhythms cause cancer? Because such disruptions affect the release of the hormone melatonin. Most of the body’s cells contain little “molecular clocks” that respond to daily alternations of light and darkness. When the light dims at night, the pineal gland releases melatonin, which promotes sleep. In fact, many people take it in pill form as a “natural” sleep aid. Under normal circumstances, such a melatonin release continues until the body encounters light again in the morning.

When this daily (circadian) rhythm is disrupted, however, so is the regular production of melatonin, which turns out to have another important biological function. According to NIOSH, it “can also stop tumor growth and protect against the spread of cancer cells.” Unfortunately, if your job requires you to stay up all night, it won’t do this as effectively.

There’s a section on the NIOSH website that asks, “What can night shift workers do to stay healthy?” The answers are not particularly satisfying. They include regular checkups and seeing your doctor if you have any of a variety of symptoms, including “severe fatigue or sleepiness when you need to be awake, trouble with sleep, stomach or intestinal disturbances, irritability or bad mood, poor performance (frequent mistakes, injuries, vehicle crashes, near misses, etc.), unexplained weight gain or loss.”

Unfortunately, even if you have access to healthcare, your doctor can’t write you a prescription to cure shift-work disorder. The cure is to stop working when your body should be asleep.

An End to Shift Work?

Your doctor can’t solve your shift work issue because, ultimately, it’s not an individual problem. It’s an economic and an ethical one.

There will always be some work that must be performed while most people are sleeping, including healthcare, security, and emergency services, among others. But most shift work gets done not because life depends upon it, but because we’ve been taught to expect our patio furniture on demand. As long as advertising and the grow-or-die logic of capitalism keep stoking the desire for objects we don’t really need, may not even really want, and will sooner or later toss on a garbage pile in this or some other country, truckers and warehouse workers will keep damaging their health.

Perhaps the pandemic, with its kinky supply chain, has given us an opportunity to rethink which goods are so “critical” that we’re willing to let other people risk their lives to provide them for us. Unfortunately, such a global rethink hasn’t yet touched Joe Biden and his administration as they confront an ongoing pandemic, supply-chain problems, a rise in inflation, and — oh yes! — an existential climate crisis that gets worse with every plastic widget produced, packed, and shipped.

It’s time for Biden — and the rest of us — to take a breath and think this through. There are good reasons that so many people are walking away from underpaid, life-threatening work. Many of them are reconsidering the nature of work itself and its place in their lives, no matter what the president or anyone else might wish.

And that’s a paradigm shift we all could learn to live with.

Rebecca Gordon, a TomDispatch regular, teaches at the University of San Francisco. She is the author of American Nuremberg: The U.S. Officials Who Should Stand Trial for Post-9/11 War Crimes and is now at work on a new book on the history of torture in the United States.

10 comments

  1. nothing wrong with shift work unless coerced. there are plenty unemployed stevedores that can easily fill these needs. truck drivers in California are abandoning the trade due to onerous regulations and increased expenses related to age of the trucks, wages fuel prices, stagnant wages; this is not true in most other states.
    much of the supply chain disarray regards no planning, no foresight. lawn chairs are not the problem. machine parts for vehicles, public transport, wafers for phones, computers, etc have been more important. Covid hysteria seems an excuse not the actual cause

    1. That’s an outright lie about truck drivers. The fact is that the truck driver shortage is national, not just in California. My brother just retired from a career in logistics, and he’s been telling me about the truck driver shortage for a year or two. My brother is not in California, and he shipped nationally. This has nothing to do with over-regulation, that’s right wing BS. For drivers, regulations are good, and the more, the better. It’s the trucking company owners (aka piggy bosses) who don’t like regulations.

      The supply chain problem began with COVID-19; it’s not an “excuse.” Companies stopped shipping when no one was buying, and the steamship companies can’t ramp up as fast as demand did when things opened up again. (There are other problems too, like China not having enough empty containers to load with freight.) As to autos, the main problem is that there is a major shortage of microchips, so the automakers can’t build new cars and there’s a shortage of them.

      The root of this problem is shipping itself. Goods should be made and shipped locally for environmental reasons alone. If you base your economy and goods on international shipping, any problem in the chain can cause the whole chain to clog up. That’s what has happened here.

    2. > nothing wrong with shift work

      No, there is a lot wrong with shift work. Read. The. Fucking. Article.

      > Covid hysteria

      Sure, this pandemic enveloping the world is “hysteria”.

      I have shat out turds more intelligent than you.

  2. The crux is: “to take a breath and think this through”.
    We need “mob” action where a critical mass of people think critically.

  3. Good post. We need to stop making and buying so much stupid crap.

    Want lawn furniture? Go to the Hardware store and buy some lumber.
    Find a high school kid or a retired carpenter in the neighborhood.

    It will be stronger and more beautiful than some crap imported from China.

    Think local. Buy local. We need to change the way we live.

    And stop eating meat. It is all connected. It is all important. Everything matters.

    1. I agree. But I honestly think that for many people buying/owning stuff is the most spiritually satisfying thing in their lives.

      Here’s an anecdote (from the book ‘Zen Flesh, Zen Bones’, by Paul Reps):

      Ryokan, a Zen master, lived the simplest kind of life in a little hut at the foot of a mountain. One evening a thief visited the hut only to discover there was nothing in it to steal.

      Ryokan returned and caught him. “You may have come a long way to visit me,” he told the prowler, “and you should not return empty-handed. Please take my clothes as a gift.”

      The thief was bewildered. He took the clothes and slunk away.

      Ryokan sat naked, watching the moon. “Poor fellow,” he mused, “I wish I could give him this beautiful moon.”

  4. Today’s digital chains of scientific management, by which human resources have become all the more imprisoned in a 24/7 economy by means of machines that never sleep, perfect the inherent exploitation of capitalism which Marx summed up with the words: “Time is everything, man is nothing: he is at most time’s carcass.” Wage slavery makes all work a graveyard shift. And as automation and robotics take over the job details, we become useless eaters to be disposed of in graves en masse.

    Patio furniture is more useful, and less harmful, than what this author considers critical goods for a pandemic that never was and is still propagandized thanks to uncritical reports like this one, erasing the loss of livelihoods and lives from far more lethal lockdowns and silencing dissent to non-‘vaccines’ and mandates among many now “reconsidering the nature of work itself and its place in their lives” under medical tyranny and forced compliance with Frankenscience.

    If workers of the world fail in a “global rethink” of covid as a coup and keep buying shock-doctrine demolition of national economies as a public health emergency, global reset of human society will continue its death march. Those refusing to line up with the lies are the true frontline heroes.

    1. The WHO Confirms that the Covid-19 PCR Test is Flawed: Estimates of “Positive Cases” are Meaningless. The Lockdown Has No Scientific Basis
      By Prof Michel Chossudovsky,

    2. Flattening the curve or flattening the global poor? How Covid lockdowns obliterate human rights and crush the most vulnerable
      STAVROULA PABST AND MAX BLUMENTHAL

  5. I never liked Joe Biden. He has been on the wrong side of every important issue
    since he entered into what passes for politics in this country. Supply chain problems,
    moderately higher gas prices, a blip in inflation, lousy working conditions, etc,
    are all the fault of

    capitalism.

    The only way Biden deserves blame for this emanates from his consistent
    support of this system and his consistent undermining of the palliatives that
    could have made it less brutal. His enemies are significantly worse than he is.

    Good God! Have I just defended Joe Biden (somewhat)? What’s happening to me?

    Note: the author has reminded me of a summer job I had in 1970 at a junk mail
    place on Endo Boulevard. Every night it sent out at least 100000 pieces of mail.
    The worst part of the job was “catching letters”. A merciless middle-aged lady would
    run the junk mail through a machine that put a 6 cent (maybe 8) indicia on each piece.
    I had to take them out of a hopper before it got so full that the emerging letters
    would get stopped by the increasing pile – thus jamming the machine. Then I had to
    put the letters into properly labelled mailbags (hanging on a rack behind me) according
    to zip code. When a bag got full, I had to “tilt” it so that a runner could remove it.
    Then I had to replace it with a properly labelled empty bag. I had a small table near
    the hopper. Most of the time I had to place stacks of stamped letters on it to avoid
    jamming the machine. This created a backlog that could only be reduced when she
    went to the john. It was pure tension for 8 hours a night. Fortunately, I didn’t have
    to do this every night. I was actually rather good at it.

    I really liked my coworkers. We got 2 ten minute breaks a night. I got to know them
    a bit during these breaks. One of them, Tony Gish, said to me, “It’s a good thing you’re a
    college kid because you don’t want to work this way for the rest of your life – as I
    have had to do.” He was in his 60s. The merciless middle-aged lady was not really as
    sadistic as she seemed – at least for 20 minutes a night.

    I worked at Creative Mailing Service for the next two summers. If I had any brains,
    I would have become a devoted Marxist at that time. Just a bit slow, I guess. It turns
    out that anybody who has had to work an exploitative job is a Marxist, whether they
    know it or not. Come to think about it, every job I have ever had has been exploitative.
    Fortunately, some were less so than others.

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