History Jim Mamer Original

The President Gets an “F” in American History

Cone of Self Censorship – By Mr. Fish

By Jim Mamer / Original to ScheerPost

For 35 years I taught high school classes in politics, economics and American history. And for 35 years I struggled against a mythological past that is central to virtually every state-approved secondary American history textbook. I’m not referring to what might be called “conservative” texts or to those one might label as “liberal.” Mythological history is present in all of them.

There are countless examples, but here are a few that frustratingly stand out. It is impossible to find a secondary text that does not feature Manifest Destiny as either an explanation or an excuse for the murderous westward expansion into territory owned and occupied by the native peoples. Genocide and ethnic cleansing are not mentioned. The undeniable cruelty of race-based slavery is minimized. And in some states the mystifying term “American Exceptionalism” has become required curriculum.

Obviously historical myths are not limited to school books; they are commonly used in ad campaigns, in religious preaching, and they are expected in political speeches. That is one reason I try to avoid presidential speeches, but for some reason, on September 1, I tuned into President Biden’s speech attacking the MAGA mob.

Given the subject I thought the speech would be, at least, acceptable. After all, there is no need to resort to mythology to build a case against the likes of Donald Trump, Marjorie Taylor Greene or Lauren Boebert when they talk election fraud and boast about making America great again.

Nevertheless, President Biden began his speech with a transparent myth that the Declaration of Independence suggested that “in America, we’re all created equal.” I can’t imagine why he, or his speech writers, thought that would impress. Doesn’t everyone know that when Jefferson wrote, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” he meant some white men and no one else? Don’t most Americans know that, in 1776, slavery existed in all 13 colonies? That women were not regarded as citizens and could not vote?

To anyone interested, the Declaration of Independence is available online and, in the list of grievances against the English King, it includes the following racist description of Native Americans: “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” There is no mention of equality.

After the president announced the mythic meaning of the Declaration, he added, as foundational, the Constitution of 1787 and asserted that, “These two documents and the ideas they embody — equality and democracy — are the rock upon which this nation is built. They are how we became the greatest nation on earth.” There is no mention of equality in the Constitution of 1787, but an Equal Rights Amendment was proposed in 1972. It was never ratified.

Unfortunately for the president’s credibility, neither the Declaration nor the Constitution of 1787 suggest that “in America we’re all created equal.” It should be apparent by now that MAGA rhetoric cannot be criticized by suggesting, as Hilary Clinton did, that America was “always great.” I suspect that Biden and his speech writers know this and simply thought no one would notice. They were wrong, and last week they blew their chance at a memorable speech.

It could have been very different. Imagine if the president had begun his speech with a line that appeared near the end when Biden said, “We have never fully realized the aspirations of our founding, but every generation has opened those doors a little bit wider to include more people who have been excluded before.”

By stipulating that, “We have never fully realized the aspirations of our founding” Biden could have recognized the valiant and unending struggle for a democratic United States. He could have recognized some of the countless people and organizations who deserve to be remembered. Some are in the textbooks, but many are not. They all deserve credit.

The President had the time necessary to list at least a few. Here are some suggestions that would have made for an effective and very memorable speech: He could have mentioned that although four of our first five presidents were slaveowners, there were always Americans opposed to slavery. The American Anti-Slavery Society, founded in 1833, made a significant contribution toward an American democracy. Among the founders were William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass, and he could have suggested that statues of Garrison and Douglass should replace those featuring Civil War Confederates on horseback.

He could have mentioned the very unfinished struggle for the rights of women. He could have paid homage to Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Lucy Stone. He could have thanked those suffragettes who marched and practiced civil disobedience including Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, who founded the National Woman’s Party in 1916 and who demonstrated in front of the White House to force President Woodrow Wilson into supporting a federal suffrage amendment.

He could have mentioned the vital contribution of the labor movement in the struggle for a real democracy by fighting for better wages, reasonable hours and safer working conditions. He could have honored the contributions of hundreds who struggled, including Eugene V. Debs, Samuel Gompers, Frances Perkins, Dolores Huerta and César Chávez.

He could have admitted that real democracy would be impossible without the accomplishments of the modern Civil Rights movement. He could have mentioned the foundational writings of W.E.B. Du Bois, the activism of Paul Robeson, the work of Ella Baker and Fannie Lou Hamer, the accomplishments of Thurgood Marshall, the writings of James Baldwin, the inspiration of Rosa Parks, and the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. He could have mentioned the importance of the Freedom Riders, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the (late) Voting Rights Act of 1965.

He could have mentioned that the American Indian Movement, founded in 1968, was an important step in calling attention to the conditions in which many native peoples still live. He could have mentioned that his own Secretary of the Interior, Deb Haaland, is the first Native American Cabinet secretary in U.S. history. And he could have congratulated her for initiating a review of the troubled legacy of federal Indian boarding school policies. He could have ended by apologizing for the now documented deplorable conditions that existed in those schools.

The president also said, near the end of his speech, “I believe it’s my duty, my duty to level with you, to tell the truth no matter how difficult, no matter how painful.” No kidding. Unfortunately saying that the United States was founded on equality and democracy does not make it so. In spite of everything, no matter how painful it might become, the struggle will continue.

Jim Mamer
Jim Mamer

Jim Mamer is a retired high school teacher. He was honored as Social Science/History Teacher of the Year in 1992 by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). He was a Coe Fellow for study of United States History at Stanford University in 1984.

52 comments

  1. Sure, Jim, you are correct in everything you say, but I wouldn’t put so much blame on Biden. This is a national myth that has been foisted on us since we were born. Jefferson wrote those words and believed them in a time when slaves were only considered 3/4 of a human being, when men not women were considered as equals. Are we exceptional, are we great despite our flaws? I guess it depends on what you consider great, but as nation we have achieved a lot, though we have also done equally as many horrible things. At least, in our own day, the words of Jefferson actually mean more to us now because of our greater understanding of what it means to be a human being.

  2. Boy o boy, what a terrific essay. There’s nothing like the truth from which to build something genuine and free from the eternal adman’s sales pitch loaded mostly with baloney.

    1. Thanks for sharing a “real life” story, Jim. Salina, doesn’t read like you have anything of substance to add other than a feeble effort to throw meaningless insults. Do you care to share your educational background? Regardless, you are a Poster Girl for the dysfunctional discourse and politics today. Congratulations from MTG and her pal Gaetz. They’ll love your feeble effort.

    1. In reality the American revolution of 1776 accomplished one thing– changing the redcoats into bluecoats. The social hierarchy remained the same and the privileged continued to be privileged.

    2. The American Revolution was indeed a revolution… for a privileged few but not most. And by omitting those “most” , like many a honored thinker and activist of the past have said, declared, professed, quiet omission of truth and justice is tacit approval of deceit and injustice.

      1. false–it was a world war fought by the French and Spanish funded by the Dutch vs the British…Washington described his small militia as incompetent, dirty and nasty…55% supported the crown—most Indians and blacks also

  3. Yeah, he could have done all those things – but maybe he remembered what happened to Jimmy Carter when he dared to tell (some) truth about what was happening in this “greatest” of countries – what a bummer ….

    Let’s face it – truth is not high on the list of politicians, whether Rs OR Ds –

    Of course he couldn’t mention that Ds are as suppressive of voting “rights” as Rs – Rs want to limit who can vote and Ds want to limit who one can vote for – only Ds or Rs, no other party permitted and if one tries it will be squeezed out, not with better ideas, but with “qualifiers” that keep them off ballots and out of debates – “competition” is encouraged except when it comes to politics ….

    The hypocrisy of all this is “ripe” indeed …

    1. Yeah, I love it when an essay is filled with all those things old Cracker Joe should have said, or could have said. Biden WILL NEVER say any of those things, those true things. He either doesn’t believe them, or thinks they’re irrelevant. A correction here applies: Biden and his speech writers REALLY believe the nonsense they spout. Remember, Biden actually gets angry when he denounces Med4All. He really believes it’s awful, and that there is “no money to pay for it.” Like Dubya Bush, Biden thinks he’s got it all figured out, and is the smartest guy in the room. No reason for any hope here.

      1. I remember those speeches where he was calling for gutting SS and Medicare and he was just giddy at the prospect at screwing over poor and vulnerable people. A real piece of work.

  4. Thank you !….as Leonard Cohen wrote…”.Democracy is coming to the U.S.A.”…..perhaps equality too….let’s stay tuned….as the struggle continues…..

  5. Get with the program, history is whatever our Moron in High Castle says it is.

    If you have a problem with that then you can talk to the FBI.

    How much longer till the work camps and the signs saying “work will set you free.”

    1. Yep.

      When you put your political opponents in jail, as Biden does with the more peaceful MAGA Capitol tourists, you lose all claim to democracy.

      As Jefferson (yes, he owned slaves, as did most of the Rich of his and all preceeding eras) said about Shays’ Rebellion (with GUNS!) “God forbid we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion. The people cannot be all and always well-informed. The part which is wrong will be discontented in proportion to the importance of the facts they misconceive. If they remain quiet under such misconceptions it is a lethargy, the forerunner of death to the public liberty. We have had thirteen states independent eleven years. There has been one rebellion. That comes to one rebellion in a century and a half for each state. What country before ever existed a century and a half without a rebellion?

      And what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, PARDON, and pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure. Our Convention has been too much impressed by the insurrection of Massachusetts, and in the spur of the moment they are setting up a [CHICKEN HAWK] to keep the hen yard in order.”

      1. Scary post. Hoping and dreaming for violent insurrection. Pretty sure the vast majority of Christian Americans would be appalled at this. Personally confident this will remain only a perverted dream. I recommend Xanax!

  6. It would have given me so much hope that we could have civil discourse to work towards true equality in our country if our president (or his speech writer) had actually said, “We have never fully realized the aspirations of our founding, but every generation has opened those doors a little bit wider to include more people who have been excluded before.”

  7. I didn’t hear or read the speech and don’t disagree with Marners suggested inclusions. But he fails to also include references to the early day entrepreneurs and business empire builders that, even with their flaws, created millions of jobs for Americans and new immigrants and a middle class never before seen in the history of mankind. We’re still tinkering with that Capitalist system to make it fairer, more inclusive and environmentally friendly but it’s been a unique world envied and copied phenomenon. It deserves to credit among the social advances created by America.

    1. too much LSD in your village; no social advances in USA #1 violent crime non-violent crime rape per capita, most incarcerated per capita in history; 31% diagnosed mentally ill and this ignores axis 2 personality disorders—nobody envies amerika—only the lowest most incompetent classes leave their own culture….’White Trash: The 400 Year Untold History of Class in america’—-Nancy Isenberg…..civilized peoples measure society by quality, not exploitation and fascism, imperialism…”as one digs deeper into the national character of Americans one sees they have sought the value of everything in this world according to the answer to a single question: how much money will it bring in?” Tocqueville
      likely you have never lived in a civilized society
      “american parents teach their children to have bad manners….only in america do people act like machines are treated like machines and only in america are machine metaphors used to describe human behavior….americans bewilder Europeans”. Geoffrey Gorer

    2. You have a rather Pollyannic view of the role of capitalism in America and it’s relationship with Labor. There was indeed an immigration rush in the post civil era. However, it was because American “entrepreneurs” needed cheap labor to replace the slave just lost. The unregulated capitalists then ran the nations economy into the ground twice by 1929, the second time dragging the rest of the world down with it and causing the rise of worldwide fascism, an evil we are still dealing with today.

      An American middle class and some prosperity among its workers was only the result of decades of labor activism and sacrifice and the eventual government actions taken by the post Great Depression progressives like FDR, Eisenhower and LBJ. Americas capitalists have never conceded anything without a demand. If it were up to them and their ancestors we would all still be living in “company” towns connected by dirt roads. In truth, many Americans already are.

      1. As I stated, Capitalism is clearly flawed. So . . . we generally agree on your details. But . . . has there ever been a middle class like ours, however you want to describe the ownership/labor machinations, in the history of the world? If entrepreneurs hadn’t created the need for large amounts of labor there would never have been a labor movement. There would have never been the issues of women and minority participation. And yes, recessions/depressions happen for a number of reasons. Sometimes independent of Capitalists. We may be watching one unfold right now primarily driven by the Russian invasion. Governmental oversight and regulations are supposed to minimize the swing of excessive economic highs and lows. Not so in the early days. We had to learn that and still don’t quite have it right.

      2. entirely false—prosperity in US entirely derives from imperialism and theft—USA has been at war 95% of its history, stealing exploiting…indeed Merleau-Ponty observed that conditions in Belgium were better than in France entirely due to their African colonies

    3. today’s so-called capitalism is just institutionalized usury
      – not at all related to what the empire builders accomplished in their respective industry or how they did it

      1. I’m sorry but this comment doesn’t tell us much to contribute to the dialogue. Usery is a term used to describe excessive or illegal lending. Is that all capitalism is? Hardly.

    4. Ah, but if Marners had included the wonders of capitalism, he’d also have had to write a few chapters about its failures, no? He’d have to note how the rapacious holders of highly concentrated private capital have captured both electoral and policy politics- blocking and removing as much as possible any constraints upon their further concentrations of wealth and control. He’d have to write about the pushing of the climate control system towards complete chaos as the capitalists blocked any meaningful actions to reign in industrial-scale change of the atmospheric chemistry, of the depletion of seas, the spreading of poisons throughout the biosphere and the beginning of what is called the Earth’s 6th Great Mass Extinction Event.

      He’d also have to write about the extraordinary concentration of wealth that allows corporate CEOs to earn 670 times the pay of the average worker; and the fact that more than 10% of the citizenry live below the poverty line, and that a similar percentage lack health insurance, while very many others are one health crisis away from poverty.

      He’d have to discuss how the government adds to national debt (which is sure to crush younger generations) in order to give unlimited money for wars – enriching the weapons manufacturers while infrastructure falls apart, people lack safe drinking water in various states, educational achievement falls, etc.

      He’d have to discuss how fossil fuel capital in particular controls just enough politicians to ensure that we keep climate forcing accelerating and overrun the sovereignty and rights of indigenous peoples and any community without the legal resources to counter it.

      Ah, but i’m sure you’ll say that we just need to add a few tweaks and it’ll all be perfect! In your dreams, perhaps.

  8. The more I read, the clearer it becomes that today’s middle class has no cognizance of the size or consequences of our poverty crisis. Of course, democracy itself is incompatible with our “free market” capitalism.

  9. Excellent – this post should be required reading for anyone who aspires to office in this nation – and every student in every school, beginning with the age of reason. Initial equality, Santa, and the Easter Bunny share the same origin: treat the people like young children.

  10. At this regrettable point in our nation’s history, even if some knew and actually taught the truth it wouldn’t make a whole lot of difference. Racism, nationalism, and misogyny are now being worn like banners of honor……especially, unbelievably, among the far right Christian fanatics.

  11. Well said, Jim. I’m hardly surprised the President wasn’t honest with us. He hasn’t been honest about the war in Ukraine, which was not “an unprovoked attack” by Russia. Doesn’t he know anything about NATO expansion, and it’s invitation to have Ukraine apply for membership?
    He should read Barbara Tuchman’s the March of Folly.

  12. Jim presents an important critique of Biden’s speech. Unfortunately, missed opportunities seem to be a common theme for many Democratic politicians. I’m not sure if Biden knows better, but I would think that at least some of his speechwriters probably do. Instead of framing the struggle for democracy in America within a real historical context, this was a political speech that stuck to mythology instead of dealing with uncomfortable truths. I’m assuming that much of the self censorship among his political advisors in the West Wing is due in part to being afraid of the predictable attacks from Republicans who would say that Biden “hates America” if he gave the kind of speech that was thought provoking and relevant. So instead of engaging in meaningful debate about the struggle to create a more democratic society in the US, they took the path of sticking to the basic formula of glittering generalities, myth-based patriotism and American exceptionalism. This definitely does not help the public to better understand the back and forth struggle for more democracy in America, and especially the instances of democratic decline, which unfortunately includes our current period. The US ranking on the main democratic indexes has been continuously falling for some time now. This decline began before the Trump presidency and the downward slide is continuing. Biden’s speech is not helping.

  13. It really is time for a younger person to lead our country towards a vision of a future that feels good. Let’s start with agriculture. Growing food that is good to eat without pesticides and glyphosate. Plenty of people would like to work on land that is absorbing carbon. Enough with the giant tractors and no living thing but GMO corn and soybeans. It took the white settlers only a few hundred years to destroy this land that the native population had preserved for centuries.

    1. Hear, Hear for a younger President. Sadly, there isn’t a young charismatic in either party. Hopefully there’s still time for one to emerge. Otherwise we pick from 2 befuddled old guys. One an obese 74 year old and the other closing in on 85 who can’t seem to walk straight; neither can speak well even using a teleprompter.

  14. Thanks as always for your insights Jim. This was indeed a missed opportunity to help shape a new more honest American mythology. Myths are powerful structures that shape our frail conceptions of what is right and wrong. I don’t think that Democrats can achieve their objectives by playing in the same mythological space as their opponents. Americans that are most moved by the moral foundation of tradition are probably already voting Republican. Perhaps Biden thought that tradition-minded undecideds might pick his camp. We will see. Are the tradition-minded undecided? I am hopeful that future leaders will not miss opportunities to openly discuss our troubled past and lead us toward healing.

  15. Thanks for your critique of Biden’s version of national identity.
    I would recommend Benedict Anderson’s “Imagined Communities”— reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism.

  16. High school history teachers know that kids don’t like being lied to when it comes to the past. When they learn about some of our less than noble actions they often say “Why didn’t I know this sooner?” Unfortunately, there’s a trend among some American adults to keep the nasty bits of U.S. history suppressed through political measures, school choice initiatives, and school board harassment. Apparently, many adults like the myth of what America should be better than working towards making America what it could be. A Biden speech emphasizing the struggles individuals made throughout our history to achieve the promise our amendable constitution allows would have been a moment for him to contrast his ideals against the regressive nature of the MAGA crowd he sought to set apart.

    1. Right on Mary!!! The more truth, the more solid the foundation of parsing what’s necessary and what’s illusion/misinformation/propaganda/fiction that must be ditched in order to build the “new.”

  17. Though some, (probably many), will disagree with me I don’t think it is at all a justifiable criticism to say that Mr Mamer is too harsh or outspoken in his criticism of Biden’s balancing act of nodding to the Norman Rockwell delusion while sending a nod and a wink to the true victims , previous and remaining, of the actual North American story.
    Perhaps Biden’s speech writers and public opinion wizards’ craftily well crafted speech, sprinkled with just enough harsh truth (in the form of euphemism and vagaries) as to appease the progressive left while engaging the middle right just enough to avoid too much vitriol from the far right’s authoritarian machine, know what their doing from a political polls perspective. I hope and pray they’re wrong. Actually, personally, I would not be able to prevent myself from being even more “in your face” than the good and kind Mr. Jim Mamer is. And as for Biden? Though undoubtedly full of good intentions, I doubt he will ever be articulate and strong enough to keep us off that path paved with good intentions that leads straight to hell. I look forward to hearing more from Jim Mamer.

  18. Jim,
    I just read your piece and the comments submitted thus far. (I was pleased, by the way, to see Jon Resendez’s there.) It is now 1 AM and I want to take some time to process what I have
    read and to give some thought to comments of my own. As you already knew, I do agree with
    you about the abysmal state of textbook content and the on-going destructive myth-making they perpetuate.
    If the purpose of Biden’s speech was to correct those wrongs and to reeducate America, I would definitely agree with you.
    I fear, however, that the consequences of him doing so would more likely than not to alienate a large portion of the electorate and end with either Trump or DeSantos becoming our next president. That would be an extraordinarily high price to pay for his honesty. To be sure, the price we continue to pay for the fantasy world we live in cannot be understated, but where and when is it best to correct the record? That is the real challenge, isn’t it!
    Having said that, I can’t devise a solution to the textbook problem and the power of the bully
    pulpit as a tool to counter that damage. So, what do I suggest?
    At this moment, I am at a loss. Tell us the truth and end up with a demagogue/dictator on a par with Putin, Stalin, MBS and the like, or do some modest things which can be done and work to correct some of the damage perpetuated by our myths. Case in point:
    “He could have mentioned that his own Secretary of the Interior, Deb Haaland, is the first Native American Cabinet secretary in U.S. history. And he could have congratulated her for initiating a review of the troubled legacy of federal Indian boarding school policies.”
    He DID appoint Haaland, and he HAS publicly congratulated her in her efforts. As modest as that is, it is something.
    Then I fear the feeble nature of incrementalism and ask: If not now, when? The wait for real justice has been far too long and one can justifiably ask, Where IS that promissory note, already?!
    I knew a fellow in graduate school who used to walk around repeatedly mumbling “It is hard to know what to do.”
    The older I get, the more I appreciate his mumblings.
    Jim

    1. on ly a fascist could compare civilized leaders like Stalin or Putin with incompetent racist nazis like Obama and Biden

  19. I appreciate that Mr. Mamer recognizes that if no women can vote in your “democracy,” you might not actually have a democracy. I appreciate much that Mr. Mamer states. However, I disagree that the “unending struggle for a democratic United States” is valiant.

    I mean, WTF? Why do we have to “struggle” in the same class war so much? I don’t think it’s valiant that this sort of disparity and inequity always finds a way to come out on top. I suspect it has something to do with the fact that most Americans believe in wealth inequality and exploitation as a way of life. In other words, I think there’s something deeply, fundamentally, morally and scientifically wrong with our entire worldview and way of being. We’re a kind of Titanic shipwreck of an ideology, and all we ever do is rearrange the deck chairs, century after century.

    I don’t see our struggle as valiant. I see it as corrupt. It’s an insane war to alter reality, a con game where somehow we’re all going to make a healthy society out of exploitation and wealth concentration (because some people “deserve” great wealth) in the same way we think we made liberty and justice out of violent invasion, genocide and land theft. It’s more insanity.

    Our struggle isn’t an indicator of our great courage and moral work. It’s an indicator that we are like a monkey with our paw trapped in a jar because we won’t let go of something, and that something is our entire sick way of living on the planet, the one that is coming to an end very soon because we’re too mean and stupid to live in the long term.

    1. America is not a democracy. This can be proved in one number. Check the latest of a long series of polls as to whether America is going in the right direction and a wrong direction. You’ll find the proof there.

      Since a democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, it is structurally impossible for the people in a democracy to feel that they are going the wrong direction, especially for a long period of time. An actual democracy will always self-correct so that the people at least feel that the country is moving in the right direction.

      If people think that they are struggling inside a democracy, but if in reality they are playing a fake game in an oligarchy where the game is just designed to distract them from the rule of the oligarchs, then those people will never succeed in ‘their struggle’.

      1. I agree. It’s not a democracy. It’s a ponzi scheme and a shell game. a

        It’s almost over, however. After this year’s crop failures from heat and drought, failures that extended from Iowa west to the Pacific, it won’t be long now before this sociopathic crimewave ends, along with everything else. It was a La Nina year, too.

  20. IIRC, for the last 35 years, the economics of the mega-corps that publish school books has been such that all of your school books are the ones approved by the state of Texas.

    The logic from the mega-corps was always that since Texas was a large market, they could not publish a school book that would not be accepted in Texas. Of course, I’m sure it was coincidence that Texas’ views happen to correspond to the psychopaths who run the corporation for maximum profit.

  21. democracy meaningless since amerikans cannot possess this–many different forms as Elster, Linz, Michels, Herzen etc observed—-same as socialist/communist models in China Russia Belarus
    Cuba, Nicaragua differ—the Rhine economic model vs the anglophone model has been examined by many also…..history is not events, dates occurrences or statements; it is the continuity of values, family structure, economic practices, decision making, etc—Hegel, Dilthey Gadamer, Hegel, Feurbach, etc…history is instructive but not predictable…..as Berman demonstrates, the more that is known about the US Civil War the more historians deny that it had anything to do with slavery

  22. Thank you for this post and the reassurance that, during your tenure, students in your district were being exposed to transparent, honest history. I was working with two seventh graders in our after-school book club days after this post, and days after the anniversary of September 11, 2001. We had just concluded reading 102 Minutes and were talking about the importance of getting the full story of events in history. Young students know when they are being lied to and want to know the whole story and not be fed half-truths or other neatly packaged myths from their textbooks. Maybe there is hope in that. Thank you again for a great post.

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